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cs507 1st Assignment complete sure solution spring 2013
04-25-2013, 05:51 PM
Post: #1
cs507 1st Assignment complete sure solution spring 2013
cs507 1st Assignment complete sure solution spring 2013


A hierarchical organization is organization structured in a way such that every entity in the
organization, except one, is subordinate to a single other entity. This is the dominant mode of
organization among large organizations; most corporations and governments are hierarchical
organizations
• Low number of subordinates per supervisor
• Long chain of command
• Greater number of levels
Flat
Flat organization refers to an organizational structure with few or no levels of intervening management
between staff and managers. The idea is that well-trained workers will be more productive when they are
more directly involved in the decision making process, rather than closely supervised by many layers of
management.
This structure is generally possible only in smaller organizations or individual units within larger
organizations. When they reach a critical size, organizations can retain a streamlined structure but cannot
keep a completely flat manager-to-staff relationship without impacting productivity. Certain financial
responsibilities may also require a more traditional structure. Some theorize that flat organizations
become more traditionally hierarchical when they begin to be geared towards productivity.
Following are the characteristics of a flat organization.
• High number of subordinates per supervisor
• Short of chain of command
• Less number of levels
• Eliminates middle level managers
• Decentralizes authority to low level managers


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04-26-2013, 10:05 AM
Post: #2
RE: cs507 1st Assignment complete sure solution spring 2013
(04-25-2013 05:51 PM)Meesha M.A Wrote:  cs507 1st Assignment complete sure solution spring 2013

:thinking thats not great.
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04-27-2013, 02:16 PM
Post: #3
RE: cs507 1st Assignment complete sure solution spring 2013
what about 2nd solution ????
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04-27-2013, 08:24 PM
Post: #4
RE: cs507 1st Assignment complete sure solution spring 2013
THANKS A LOT
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04-28-2013, 06:31 AM
Post: #5
RE: cs507 1st Assignment complete sure solution spring 2013
good work
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04-29-2013, 10:25 PM
Post: #6
RE: cs507 1st Assignment complete sure solution spring 2013
Primary Sources
There are a number of different definitions for primary, secondary and tertiary literature. These can vary according to academic discipline (ie. science or humanities). In brief:
These are original materials which have not been filtered through interpretation, condensation, or, often, even evaluation by a second party; for example journal articles, monographs, reports, patents, theses, diaries, letters, photographs, poems.
Secondary Sources
A secondary source is information about primary, or original, information, which usually has been modified, selected, or rearranged for a specific purpose or audience. It is not always easy to discern the difference between primary and secondary sources. Examples include biographies, histories, monographs, review articles, textbooks, and any index or bibliography used to locate primary sources.
Tertiary Sources
These consist of information, which is a distillation and collection of primary and secondary sources. Twice removed from the original, they include encyclopedias, fact books and almanacs, guides and handbooks. Some secondary sources such as indexing and abstracting tools can also be considered tertiary sources.


Primary sources are original materials on which other research is based. for example : Patents, Sets of data, census statistics,Works of literature, Diaries ,Autobiographies ,Interviews, surveys and fieldwork, Letters and correspondence.
Secondary source Describes, interpret, analyze and evaluate the primary sources and Comment on, discuss the evidence provided by primary sources. For example : biographical works , commentaries ,dictionaries and encyclopedias.
Tertiary source are materials in which the information from secondary sources has been reformatted and condensed, to put it into a convenient, easy-to-read form. For example : Handbooks and data compilations (may also be secondary) , Indexing and abstracting tools used to locate primary & secondary sources.



What is a primary source?
A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event. Some types of primary sources include:
• ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable): Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, autobiographies, official records
• CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry, drama, novels, music, art
• RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings
Examples of primary sources include:
• Diary of Anne Frank - Experiences of a Jewish family during WWII
• The Constitution of Canada - Canadian History
• A journal article reporting NEW research or findings
• Weavings and pottery - Native American history
• Plato's Republic - Women in Ancient Greece
What is a secondary source?
A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them. Some types of seconday sources include:
• PUBLICATIONS: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias
Examples of secondary sources include:
• A journal/magazine article which interprets or reviews previous findings
• A history textbook
• A book about the effects of WWI
Search by keyword for Primary Sources in the Main Catalog
You can search the Main Catalog to find direct references to primary source material. Perform a keyword search for your topic and add one of the words below:
(these are several examples of words that would identify a source as primary)
• charters
• correspondence
• diaries
• early works
• interviews
• manuscripts
• oratory
• pamphlets
• personal narratives
• sources
• speeches
• letters
• documents
What is a primary source?
A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event. Some types of primary sources include:
• ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable): Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, autobiographies, official records
• CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry, drama, novels, music, art
• RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings
Examples of primary sources include:
• Diary of Anne Frank - Experiences of a Jewish family during WWII
• The Constitution of Canada - Canadian History
• A journal article reporting NEW research or findings
• Weavings and pottery - Native American history
• Plato's Republic - Women in Ancient Greece
What is a secondary source?
A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them. Some types of seconday sources include:
• PUBLICATIONS: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias
Examples of secondary sources include:
• A journal/magazine article which interprets or reviews previous findings
• A history textbook
• A book about the effects of WWI
Search by keyword for Primary Sources in the Main Catalog
You can search the Main Catalog to find direct references to primary source material. Perform a keyword search for your topic and add one of the words below:
(these are several examples of words that would identify a source as primary)
• charters
• correspondence
• diaries
• early works
• interviews
• manuscripts
• oratory
• pamphlets
• personal narratives
• sources
• speeches
• letters
• documents
• Primary sources are original materials on which other research is based. for example : Patents, Sets of data, census statistics,Works of literature, Diaries ,Autobiographies ,Interviews, surveys and fieldwork, Letters and correspondence.
• Secondary source Describes, interpret, analyze and evaluate the primary sources and Comment on, discuss the evidence provided by primary sources. For example : biographical works , commentaries ,dictionaries and encyclopedias.
• Tertiary source are materials in which the information from secondary sources has been reformatted and condensed, to put it into a convenient, easy-to-read form. For example : Handbooks and data compilations (may also be secondary) , Indexing and abstracting tools used to locate primary & secondary sources.
Primary Sources
There are a number of different definitions for primary, secondary and tertiary literature. These can vary according to academic discipline (ie. science or humanities). In brief:
These are original materials which have not been filtered through interpretation, condensation, or, often, even evaluation by a second party; for example journal articles, monographs, reports, patents, theses, diaries, letters, photographs, poems.
Secondary Sources
A secondary source is information about primary, or original, information, which usually has been modified, selected, or rearranged for a specific purpose or audience. It is not always easy to discern the difference between primary and secondary sources. Examples include biographies, histories, monographs, review articles, textbooks, and any index or bibliography used to locate primary sources.
Tertiary Sources
These consist of information, which is a distillation and collection of primary and secondary sources. Twice removed from the original, they include encyclopedias, fact books and almanacs, guides and handbooks. Some secondary sources such as indexing and abstracting tools can also be considered tertiary sources.
cs507 1st Assignment complete sure solution spring 2013


A hierarchical organization is organization structured in a way such that every entity in the
organization, except one, is subordinate to a single other entity. This is the dominant mode of
organization among large organizations; most corporations and governments are hierarchical
organizations
• Low number of subordinates per supervisor
• Long chain of command
• Greater number of levels
Flat
Flat organization refers to an organizational structure with few or no levels of intervening management
between staff and managers. The idea is that well-trained workers will be more productive when they are
more directly involved in the decision making process, rather than closely supervised by many layers of
management.
This structure is generally possible only in smaller organizations or individual units within larger
organizations. When they reach a critical size, organizations can retain a streamlined structure but cannot
keep a completely flat manager-to-staff relationship without impacting productivity. Certain financial
responsibilities may also require a more traditional structure. Some theorize that flat organizations
become more traditionally hierarchical when they begin to be geared towards productivity.
Following are the characteristics of a flat organization.
• High number of subordinates per supervisor
• Short of chain of command
• Less number of levels
• Eliminates middle level managers
• Decentralizes authority to low level managers
Tall organizational structure is one which has many levels of hierarchy. In these organizations, there are usually many managers, and each manager has a small span of control – they are in charge of only a small group of people. Tall structures tend to be more complicated and complex, and may be slower to respond to market changes than organizations where managers have a larger span of control.
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Management
In tall organizations, there are many layers of middle management between top management and employees. Each layer of management often develops its own rules and procedures, which means that employees who work several layers down in the company may have a great many rules and procedures to follow. This can slow work down and make it overly bureaucratic. This can also add to costs, as some functions are performed by more than one person.
Employees
Because managers in a tall organization only have a small number of employees to supervise, they are able to supervise more closely and spend more time on training employees. There are also very clear lines of career progression and promotion for employees. However, employee satisfaction may be lower in a tall organization because of the many layers of bureaucracy and rigid rules, and because employees have fewer opportunities to take on responsibility. This can lead to an "us vs. them" feeling among staff.
Communication
The many layers of management mean that there are clear lines of communication in a tall organization, but it can be very difficult for decisions to be made. Decision making is often slowed down because approval may be needed by many different people, and it can be difficult for managers to access executives without going through a long line of management. Because communication usually moves upward through the management chain, managers and employees in parallel groups may have difficulty communicating directly.
Costs
Tall organizations may face higher costs than in other types of business structures. One reason for this is the large number of managers and supervisors required in a tall structure. Costs may also increase due to the increased time taken in making decisions and the delays this may cause. According to the ebook, "Principles of Management," the tall structure used by the Caterpillar company in the 1980s, led to overly centralized and slow decision making that made the company uncompetitive. Once it reorganized into a flatter structure, it recaptured its market share.
Where Are They Used
Tall structures are most commonly found in more complex or larger organizations, when many decisions need to be taken at a lower level, and executives concern themselves with only the larger decisions. A tall structure also makes it easier to grow an organization as new layers can be added on without disturbing the existing layers. Tall structures were more common in the twentieth century, as the hierarchical nature of a tall structure made them easier to control. However, with the advent of the Internet and wireless communications, communication became easier and many tall organizations reduced their workforce and increased managers' span of control.




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Tall Organizational Structure
Large, complex organizations often require a taller hierarchy. In its simplest form, a tall structure results in one long chain of command similar to the military. As an organization grows, the number of management levels increases and the structure grows taller. In a tall structure, managers form many ranks and each has a small area of control. Although tall structures have more management levels than flat structures, there is no definitive number that draws a line between the two.
Flat Organizational Structure
Flat structures have fewer management levels, with each level controlling a broad area or group. Flat organizations focus on empowering employees rather than adhering to the chain of command. By encouraging autonomy and self-direction, flat structures attempt to tap into employees’ creative talents and to solve problems by collaboration.
Tall Structure Pros And Cons
The pros of tall structures lie in clarity and managerial control. The narrow span of control allows for close supervision of employees. Tall structures provide a clear, distinct layers with obvious lines of responsibility and control and a clear promotion structure. Challenges begin when a structure gets too tall. Communication begins to take too long to travel through all the levels. These communication problems hamper decision-making and hinder progress.
Flat Structure Pros And Cons
Flat organizations offer more opportunities for employees to excel while promoting the larger business vision. That is, there are more people at the “top” of each level. For flat structures to work, leaders must share research and information instead of hoarding it. If they can manage to be open, tolerant and even vulnerable, leaders excel in this environment. Flatter structures are flexible and better able to adapt to changes. Faster communication makes for quicker decisions, but managers may end up with a heavier workload. Instead of the military style of tall structures, flat organizations lean toward a more democratic style. The heavy managerial workload and large number of employees reporting to each boss sometimes results in confusion over roles. Bosses must be team leaders who generate ideas and help others make decisions. When too many people report to a single manager, his job becomes impossible. Employees often worry that others manipulate the system behind their backs by reporting to the boss; in a flat organization, that means more employees distrusting higher levels of authority.





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Hierarchical structure
Large organisations, like British Gas, tend to have tall (or hierarchical) structures. A tall structure will have many different levels of employees all reporting upwards to team leaders and then up to operational management. It will have a wide chain of command with a narrow span of control. The chain of command refers to the number of levels within an organisation. The span of control is the number of employees who are directly supervised by one person.
A tall structure can often lead to slower communication channels and decision-making. British Gas divides its business activities by products (gas and electricity), by services (maintenance and repairs) and also by functions, for example, customer services.
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